Vanilla cultivation pdf – Kilimo cha vanilla – Cultivation of vanilla
INTRODUCTION – Bei ya vanilla 2022 Tanzania
Vanilla (Vanilla fragrans) originated in Central America in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica where it was first used in the 15th century. Tahiti and
Comoros between the 18th and 19th centuries. This crop is now widely grown in parts of Madagascar, Comoros and Reunion
Vanilla is a crop that is used to add flavor to a variety of foods and beverages. The main use of this crop is to add aroma and flavor to various foods and beverages. Some of the foods that vanilla is made with include chocolate, cakes, pastries, biscuits, porridge, ice cream, n.k. Cold drinks such as soda and juice. In addition to foods and beverages vanilla is also used to make various other products such as perfumes, skin oils, soaps, cosmetics, etc.
2.0 PLANT CHARACTER
Vanilla is a plant that crawls on an ax tree and bears fruit resembling beans. Its plant grows to a height of 10 to 15 meters. Its flowers are large, thick and fragrant, light green and yellow. The size of the bean is about 10-25cm in diameter and 1.5 cm thick.
3.0 SUITABLE AREAS FOR PRODUCTION
This crop, like many other crops, thrives in well-drained, well-drained and well-drained soil. Some shade is needed, as these plants do not like hot sun.
4.0 APPROPRIATE CLIMATE
The vanilla crop requires an average temperature of 28 degrees Celsius can also withstand temperatures of 21 to 30 degrees Celsius). Not only do you need a good dispersion of between 1,500 and 3,000 millimeters, but it can also thrive in about 2,000 millimeters of rain. Wild vanilla grows best in humid areas of sea level up to 600 meters. It takes a period of between 2 to 4 months to dry out to allow the plant to flower.
5.1 FIELD PREPARATION
Prepare your field during the dry season, that is, before the monsoon rains begin. 1. Dig holes 60 cm (2 feet), 60 cm wide (2 feet) and 30 cm deep (1 foot). 2. The distance between row to row is 2.7 to 3 meters and between hole to hole in the row is 1.8 to 2.5 meters. 3. After digging the holes, leave them open for about one to two months. 4. Apply manure one month before planting, about 1 to 2 buckets per hole, mix well with soil and cover the hole.
- Cut beams 120 to 150 cm long each. The most suitable trees for beams are Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Casuarina (Casuarinaequisetifolia). After cutting let it dry for about 1 to 10 days and then plant around each hole 15 to 30 cm deep. 2. Prepare marbles 90 cm (3 feet) to 120 cm (4 feet), leave slightly dry (for 7 to 10 layers). Remove 3 or 5 leaves from the bottom of the rando. Longer stalks bloom after 1.5 or 2 years, short stalks (30 cm) are delayed flowering (3 to 4 years). 3. Plant the marrow in prepared holes 10 to 15 cm deep and cover with soil and compact. 4. Planting should be done at the beginning of the rainy season. 5. Spread dry grass in the field to prevent weeds and retain moisture in the field. 6. Tie the remaining part in axis
6.0 CARRYING THE FIELD
Keep the field clean at all times. Spread dry grass in the field to prevent weeds and retain moisture. Trim the beams by cutting them every time they exceed 180 cm, to produce shoots that will add shade to the field. When the flowers bloom every time they bloom, the pollination time is from 3.00 am to 7.00 pm. A sharp tool (thorn, needle, pin, etc.) is used to polish the fence. The fermented flower stays in the stem for three days while the unfermented flower falls in one to 2 days.
7.0 DISEASES AND INSECTS
Insects Various insects attack this crop, but they do not cause any harm. Snails, for example, eat very small amounts of leaves. Chickens also attack roots. These diseases are less susceptible to the following diseases: – • Root rot • Drying of the tip of a branch Disease caused by fog. These diseases and pests can be controlled by sowing quality seeds and keeping the field clean at all times.
Harvesting takes place between 6-9 months from flowering. Vanilla beans are harvested when ripe and part of the fruit tip turns yellow. When the fruit is very ripe it cracks. Harvesting is done by cutting mature beans using a sharp knife or hand. Vanilla is harvested before it is ripe and then mixed to make a chemical called vanillin, which is the one that gives off its aroma and flavor when used in various foods, beverages and products. The yield of raw vanilla per hectare is more than 2.5 Tons.
9.0 PROCESSING – How long does it take to process vanilla?
After harvesting, vanilla beans are immersed in hot water (63 degrees Celsius), for one to three minutes and then cool quickly. While the beans are still hot they are wrapped in a thick cotton cloth (like a blanket), the next day they will be dried in the sun for an hour. Then for a period of
One week the beans will be dried for two hours every day, and remain sealed when they are harvested. This process lasts for two or three months and then vanilla is hung in the shade or in a well-ventilated room. By this process 70 to 80 percent of the water is removed and the vanilla bean color changes to brown. Drying and packing work can take 5 to 6 months to complete to obtain the required fragrance. Another method of fermentation takes up to 4 days after chopping the beans and freezing them at high temperatures. This method speeds up processing, although it affects the quality of the crop. 5.5 to 6.0 kg of raw vanilla produces 1.0 kg of dried vanilla.
10.0 VANILLA MARKET – SOKO LA VANILLA
Raw vanilla is sold locally (Bukoba District) starting at a price of 20,000 shillings / = per kilo. When vanilla is dried, it is sold in Uganda for 300,000 / = per kg.
11.0 PRODUCTION AND INCOME COSTS COST OF ONE HECTOR – GHARAMA ZA UZALISHAJI NA MAPATO GHARAMA YA HEKTA MOJA:
Seeds Tshs. 480,000 / –
3,600,000 / – Workers
Fertilizer (compost / manure) 240,000 / –
Total 4,320,000 / –
VANILLA RAW INCOME: 2,500X20,000 / – 50,000,000 / –